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Demonstrations › Molecular Structure

Lecture Demonstrations

Molecular Structure, Bonding, Orbital Hybridization

Models and balloons are used to illustrate the geometry of molecular orbitals and VSEPR theory.


A stream of water is “bent” upon interaction with a statically charged glass rod.


Liquid oxygen is produced by the condensation of oxygen gas onto a metal coffee can full of liquid nitrogen, and then collecting it into a Styrofoam cup. The blue color of liquid oxygen is observed and the magnetic properties demonstrated.


Balloons are used to illustrate the geometry of molecules with two to six valence shell electron pairs.


Hematite magnets are used to demonstrate the attraction between polar molecules.

Two liquids, one blue and one yellow, are combined to form one green solution as an analogy for hybrid orbitals.


The properties of a ferrofluid containing nano-sized particles of a magnetic material are explored with a magnet.


A “Barrel of Monkeys” toy is used to demonstrate concepts of polymerization.