Demo Photo


Vernier Sensors Overview 

The sensors and interfaces are located in the drawers of the central bench opposite the demo bin storage shelves in the prep room.

The prep room has several Vernier sensors that can be used with your demos. All of the sensors except for the spectrometer need to be used with an interface. We have two interfaces – the Go-Link and the LabQuest. All of the sensors except for the spectrometer can be used with either the Logger Lite or the Logger Pro Software. A description of the Logger Pro software is found in a different document. Below is a brief summary of each of the sensors and the interfaces. A full manufacturer description can be found with the sensors or on the Vernier Website.

Stainless Steel Temperature Probes:

  • Quantity: 2
  • Measures resistance (R) and converts it to Temperature (T) (R decreases nonlinearly as T increases; uses Steinhart-Hart equation to convert R to T).
  • Range is from -40° to 135° C. Max T is 150°C.
  • Response time (time for 90% change in reading): 10 seconds (in water, with stirring)
  • Can be used in organic liquids, salt solutions, acids and bases. Corrosion resistant.
  • Multipurpose – use in any demo for which you want to measure temp of liquids/reaction mixture within the T range.
  • Works with Go-link & LabQuest interfaces,  Logger Lite & Logger Pro software.
  • No calibration needed.
  • For full specs see manufacturer’s spec sheet or go to


  • Quantity: 3
  • Type-K thermocouple wire
  • Designed to measure temperature in the range of –200ºC to 1400ºC
  • Can be used to measure flame temperatures as high as 1400˚C, or liquid nitrogen temperatures at -196˚C
  • Thermocouples make use of a property that occurs when two wires composed of dissimilar metals are joined at both ends. When one of the joined ends is heated, a continuous current is created and flows in a thermoelectric circuit. The small opencircuit voltage of this circuit (known as the Seebeck voltage) is a function of the junction temperature and the composition of the two metals. By measuring the voltage, the temperature at the joined end can be calculated.
  • Most circumstances do not require calibration. Special low-temperature calibration can be performed for better accuarcy in low-temperature experiments.
  • Works with both interfaces and both software platforms.

Charge Sensor:

  • Quantity: 1
  • An electronic electroscope. Uses high impedance voltage sensor with a 0.01 µF capacitor in series with the input. Capacitor accumulates charge until equilibrium is reached between source and sensor.
  • Use with electrostatic demos. Can measure charging by induction, by friction and by contact. Determine sign of charge on various charged objects.
  • Can be used with Go-Link and LabQuest interfaces, and both software platforms
  • No calibration needed.
  • For more information go to see the spec sheet or go to

Voltage Probe:

pH sensor:

  • Quantity: 3
  • Measures pH from 0-14. Resolution: 0.005 pH units
  • Type: Sealed, gel-filled, epoxy body, Ag/AgCl
  • Temperature range: 5 to 80°C
  • Response time: 90% of final reading in 1 second
  • Calibration: has stored manufacturer calibration and shouldn’t need calibration for most applications. Can be calibrated when needed using the manufacturer instructions.
  • Use with any of the acid/base demos.
  • Use with both interfaces and both software platforms.
  • For more information see the spec sheet or go to:

Oxidation/Reduction Potential (ORP) Sensor:

  • Quantity: 1
  • Type: Sealed, gel-filled, epoxy body, Ag/AgCl reference
  • Storage solution: pH-4/KCl solution (10 g KCl in 100 mL buffer pH-4 solution)
  • Redox potential range: -450 to +1100 mV
  • ORP element: 99% pure platinum band sealed on a glass stem
  • Measures ability of a solution to act as oxidizing or reducing agent
  • Measures potential in millivolts (-450 to 1100)
  • Higher readings indicate a strong oxidizing agent. Negative readings a strong reducing agent
  • Calibration not necessary for most experiments
  • Used for potentiometric titrations, other redox demos, oxidation potential of chlorine in a pool
  • For more information see spec sheet or go to

Salinity sensor:

  • Quantity: 1
  • Description: ABS body, parallel carbon (graphite) electrodes
  • Measures electrical conductivity of a solution to determine salinity (mass of dissolved salts in a given mass of solution). Measures ability of solution to conduct an electric current between two electrodes. Increasing ion concentration = increasing conductivity values. Measures conductance (1/resistance). Conductivity (C) = G*kc (G= conductance, kc = cell constant = 10cm-1).
  • Use to confirm relationship between conductivity and ion concentration of aqueous solutions. Determine concentration of unknown solutions. Use in addition to conductivity meter to get a more quantitative  determination. Monitor rate of reaction in which ionic species is consumed or produced.
  • Response time: 98% of full scale reading in 5 sec.
  • Should not need calibration – has preloaded calibration values. Can be calibrated using two point calibration following manufacturer instructions.
  • Works with both interfaces and both software platforms.
  • For more information see spec sheet or go to:

CO2 gas sensor:

  • Quantity: 1
  • For measuring gaseous CO2 concentrations. Monitors CO2 levels by measuring the amount of infrared radiation absorbed by CO2.
  • Response time: 95% of full-scale reading in 120 seconds. Data refreshes every second. Gradual changes means sampling rate is 4 seconds per sample or slower. Because gas must diffuse through the holes, the process is slower and can be delayed.
  • Warm-up time: 90 second
  • Two settings: 0-10K ppm and 0-100K ppm.
  • Use to measure CO2 in respiration, CO2 evolved from chemical reactions. Cannot be used with liquids.
  • Works with both interfaces and software platforms.
  • For more information see spec sheet or go to

Gas Pressure sensor:

  • Quantity: 1
  • Use to do gas-law experiments (i.e. Boyle’s Law, vapor pressures of liquids, P vs T, etc).
  • Range: 0-210 kPa (0-2.1 atm or 0-1600 mm hg)
  • Response time: 100 microseconds
  • Uses pressure transducer with a flexible membrane that flexes as pressure changes, creating a voltage that varies with pressure.
  • No Calibration required. Can be calibrated using instructions in booklet.
  • Works with both interfaces and software platforms.
  • For more information see Spec sheet or go to

Infrared Thermometer:

  • Quantity: 1
  • Temperature range: –20°C to 400°C
  • Response time: 1 second
  • Detection element: Thermopile
  • Measures IR radiation emitted by objects.
  • Point sensor at the object and read temperature
  • Can be standalone or with computer interface
  • Use to measure objects in classroom, skin temperature, reaction temperatures, etc.
  • Sensor is not designed to be recalibrated.
  • Works with both software platforms and interfaces
  • For more information see spec sheet or go to

Digital Radiation Monitor:

  • Quantity: 1
  • Uses Geiger-Mueller tube to sense ionizing radiation
  • Measures alpha, gamma, and beta radiation.
  • Can be used with the LabQuest interface or as a standalone device.
  • Use to measure radiation from Fiestaware, radium dial clocks, and other sources (demo 1.4). Use to measure background radiation. Demonstrate shielding.
  • For more information see spec sheet or go to

Spectro Vis Plus Spectrometer (with optical fiber accessory for measuring emission intensity):

  • Quantity: 1
  • Wavelength Range: 380 nm–950 nm
  • A visible to near-IR spectrophotometer and fluorometer
  • Light Sources: Incandescent white bulb, approximately 8000 hour lifetime, LED-based, approximately 100,000 hour lifetime
  • Can measure:
  • Absorbance or % Transmittance of solution
  • The fluorescence of a solution excited at 405 nm or 500 nm
  • Emissions of gas discharge tubes, flame tests, or other light sources
  • One-step calibration necessary when measuring absorbance
  • Requires Logger Pro 3 or use with LabQuest
  • Can connect directly to a computer via USB
  • For more information see spec sheet or go to